Why Do Dark Spots Appear On The Skin?

Many people ask themselves this question and, to answer it, we can start by naming the two types of spots that exist:
  • Hormonal spot or melasma 
  • Lentigines or liver spots

Melasma usually appears on the forehead and around the mouth. Lentigines appear mainly on the face, the back of the hands and in the neckline and are smaller in extension and occur on sun-exposed areas of the body. 

Why Are There People Who Develop Them While Others Don't?

This is due to two internal factors: genetic and hormonal. For example, there are people who genetically have more ability to produce melanin; their skin browns easily and even certain medications can make the skin more susceptible to the sun. There are also hormonal factors that influence the greater susceptibility to produce spots, especially sex hormones. Female sex hormones are photosensitizing, meaning they make us more sensitive to ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, pregnancy and contraceptives may increase the appearance of spots.

What Are The Causes?

The sun is the cause of both liver spots and hormonal spots. In areas where there is no exposure to the sun, these types of spots do not appear.

How Can We Prevent Them?

The most important thing is to avoid exposure to the sun and use sun protection, however it is important to keep in mind that there is no complete protection from the sun, even if we put on a cream with the highest protection index. It should also be noted that most sunscreens have a limited duration of action, so it is advisable to reapply them from time to time. Physical protection is also vital: the use of appropriate clothing, hat and sunglasses helps and is more effective than creams to prevent the effects of sun exposure.

Currently there are many recommended cosmetics to remove or prevent spots, but their effectiveness has not been proven. The most advisable thing is to visit a dermatologist.

There are very effective treatments with depigmenting creams and laser treatments that make this type of stain disappear completely.

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